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雅思写作高分技巧 轻松搞定雅思写作审题

2016-07-14 15:02:16作者:阅读量:

  在雅思考试中大家往往会害怕雅思写作部分的考试题目,不知道应该怎么去写文章,不知道应该怎么去针对他们出的这个题目来写一篇看起来还好的文章,为了大家能够突破这一点,文都留学给大家带来了一下雅思审题和写作技巧,让大家轻轻松松拿到7分。
 
  Step1:了解背景信息
 
  学生要根据题干信息扩大范围进行适当联想,然后再根据核心话题来扣住题目回答问题。
 
  比如真题:
 
  The environment problems facing today's world are so great that there is little ordinary people can do to improve the situation. Government and large companies should be responsible for reducing the amount of damage being done to the environment. To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement?
 
  根据上题题干中给出的background information背景信息扩大范围进行适当联想:环境问题非常严重,个别普通人已经无力改善,然后再根据核心话题,围绕“政府和大公司应该负责减少环境污染”这个话题来写整篇文章。
 
  Step2:确定文章写法
 
  1. 折中式:
 
  写法特点:适当让步,讨论正反两面。
 
  适合人群:对于英文基础一般的学生来说,折中式更加客观,也容易写够字数,而且剑桥真题写作答案也都是折中式。
 
  2. 一边倒:
 
  写法特点:直陈观点,只说正面或反面。
 
  适合人群:对于英文功底特别好的学生来说,完全支持或者完全反对的一边倒可以让文章更加充实更加犀利。
 
  Step3:组织文章结构
 
  1. Argument(辩论类):
 
  辩论类题目占到所有题目的75%-85%,出题目的是让考生辩论观点或权衡利弊,并且考察学生是否能够自圆其说提供充分论据。
 
  典型提问方式:Discuss both (these) views and give your own opinion. (To what extent) Do you agree or disagree? (To what extent) Do you think the advantages/ benefits outweigh the disadvantages/ drawbacks? What is your opinion/ view?/ What do you think?
 
  文章结构应如何组织:可以写成折中式,也可以写成一边倒。在折中式结构中,开头段可以用2-4句话介绍背景信息,讨论话题,改写题目,陈述观点;主体段可以论述你所倾向的那一方,提供第一第二第三个分论点,并且给出对应的详细解释;让步段论述自己不太倾向的那一方,提供一个或两个分论点,再反驳不合理之处;结尾段用2-3句话总结观点,重申分论点。
 
  2. Report(分析解释类):
 
  分析解释类题目占到所有题目的15%-25%,出题目的是让考生罗列分析。题目中不给出任何观点,但会出现一种现象,要求考生分析现象的原因causes,带来的问题problems,影响因素factors,解决方案solutions,应对措施measures,产生的影响effects/ influence/ impact等。
 
  典型提问方式:What are the causes/ reasons/ factors for this…? What problems…? How can…solve/overcome the problem…? What measures can be taken…?
 
  文章结构应如何组织:开头段用2-4句话交代介绍背景信息,讨论话题,改写题目,根据题目给出原因/问题/因素/解决/措施/影响。然后2-3个主体段分析现象的原因/问题/因素/解决/措施/影响等,再给出对应的详细解释。最后结尾段用1-2句话总结上文。
 
  3. Mixed (Argument + Report)
 
  近几年的亚太区雅思作文考试中,每年还有极少数(3-5次)的考题,既不算典型Argument也不算严格意义上的Report,我们简称“Mixed(混搭型)”考题。
 
  典型的提问方式:Nowadays the way many people interact with each other has changed because of technology. In what ways has technology affected the types of relationships that people make? Has this been a positive or negative development?
 
  文章结构应如何组织:In what ways has technology affected the types of relationships that people make? 该提问属于Report考题范畴,询问“现象的影响是什么”;Has this been a positive or negative development?
 
  该提问又是属于Argument考题范畴,需要讨论的是“现象利弊”。Mixed提问方式往往既涉及议论又要求考生进行一定说明,所以兼备Argument和report的双重特性,从而相对灵活。
 
  写好这类题目的关键是:掌握好前两种题型,确定其结构的方法即:用题目中带有议论特征的问题来统一另外一个问题,也就是根据议论的提问来确定整篇文章的写作逻辑,考生就可以根据题目类型组织相应的文章结构。
 
  step4:善用写作技巧让文章更出彩
 
  技巧一: 避免空洞的单词和词组
 
  1. 一些空洞的单词或词组根本不能为句子带来任何相关的或重要的信息,完全可以被删掉。比如下面的句子:
 
  When all things are considered, young adults of today live more satisfying lives than those of their parents, in my opinion.
 
  这句话当中的“when all things are considered”和“in my opinion“都显得多余。完全可以去掉。改为:
 
  Young adults of today live more satisfying lives than their parents.
 
  2. 有些空洞和繁琐的表达方式可以进行替换,例如:
 
  Due to the fact that our grandparents were under an obligation to help their parents, they did not have the options that young people have at
 
  this point in time.
 
  “due to the fact that”就是一个很典型的繁琐的表达方式的例子,可以替换,简化为下面的表达方式:
 
  Because our grandparents were obligated to help their parents, they did not have the options that young people have now.
 
  技巧二: 避免重复
 
  1. 尽量避免重复使用同样的词汇。有的时候虽然词汇没有重复,但意思却有重复,这时可以做一些简化的工作。例如:
 
  The farm my grandfather grew up on was large in size.
 
  large 对一个farm来说就是size方面的large,所以in size可以去掉,改为:
 
  The farm my grandfather grew up on was large.
 
  更简洁的表达方式为:
 
  My grandfather grew up on a large farm.
 
  2. 有时一个词组可以用一个更简单的单词来替换,例如:
 
  My grandfather has said over and over again that he had to work on his parents' farm。
 
  这里的over and over again就可以改为repeatedly,显得更为简洁:
 
  My grandfather has said repeatedly that he had to work on his parents' farm.
 
  技巧三:选择最恰当的语法结构
 
  选择合适的语法结构可以使句子意思的表达更为精确和简练。以下是在考虑选择何种语法结构时可以参考的原则:
 
  1. 一个句子的主语和谓语动词应该能够反映句子中的最重要的意思。例如:
 
  The situation that resulted in my grandfather's not being able to study engineering was that his father needed help on the farm.
 
  从意思上来分析,上面这句话需要表达的重要的概念是“grandfather's not being able to study”。
 
  在表达这个概念时,原句用的主语是situation,谓语动词是was,不能强调需要表达的重点概念,可以改为下面这句话:
 
  My grandfather couldn't study engineering because his father needed help on the farm.
 
  2.避免频繁使用“there be”结构,例如下面的句子:
 
  There were 25 cows on the farm that my grandfather had to milk every day. It was hard work for my grandfather.
 
  可以改为:
 
  My grandfather worked hard. He had to milk 25 cows on the farm every day.
 
  更简洁的句式为:
 
  My grandfather worked hard milking 25 cows daily.
 
  3.把从句改为短语或单词。例如:
 
  Dairy cows were raised on the farm, which was located100 kilometers from the nearest university and was in an area that was remote.
 
  简介的表达方式为:
 
  The dairy farm was located in a remote area, 100 kilometers to the nearest university.
 
  4.仅在需要强调宾语而不是主语的时候,才使用被动语态。例如:
 
  In the fall, not only did the cows have to be milked, but also the hay was mowed and stacked by my grandfather's family.
 
  本句不够简洁的原因是本句的重心应该是“忙碌的家庭-my grandfather's family”。
 
  而使用了被动语态后,仿佛重心变成了cows和hay。下面的表达方式是主动语态,相对来说更简洁一些:
 
  In the fall, my grandfather's family not only milked the cow but also mowed and stacked the hay.
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